October 31, 2014

Chemical Miticides

There are many miticides available to treat spider mites. I will try and explain what these are and how they work.

When it comes to selecting a miticide to control spider mites in landscapes and nurseries, there is sometimes confusion that all miticides are similar in terms of their use and the range of mites that they control. However, miticides are not all created equal because they may vary in where they can be used and the target mites on the label. Following are detailed descriptions of several miticides that are generally recommended for controlling mites both indoors and/or outdoors.

 

Akari

Akari has the active ingredient fenpyroximate, manufactured by SePRO Corp. This miticide has a very general label stating control of spider mites. It is also labeled for control of broad mite, cyclamen mite and eriophyid mites (several species). Akari is a contact and stomach poison, so complete coverage of all plant parts is important during application. Akari does not have translaminar activity. It is active on all mite life stages including eggs. However, it has higher efficacy against the larvae than the other life stages. Akari works quickly, providing rapid knockdown of existing mite populations. In fact, treated mites immediately stop feeding and females fail to lay eggs. This miticide provides up to 21 days of residual activity.

The label rate is 16-24 fl.oz. per 100 gals. Akari has a similar mode of action as pyridaben (Sanmite) and acequinocyl (Shuttle). All three miticides are mitochondria electron transport inhibitors (METIs). However, the site of action is different from that of Shuttle. Still, these miticides should not be used in succession in a rotation program. Akari has a mode of action that involves inhibition of the mitochondria electron transport system at the NADH-coenzyme Q reductase site of Complex I.

 

Floramite

Which contains the active ingredient bifenazate is labeled for control of a wide range of mites, including twospotted spider mite, Pacific mite, strawberry mite, European red mite, citrus red mite, clover mite, southern red mite, spruce spider mite, and bamboo spider mite. It is not active on rust, broad, or flat mite. Floramite is labeled for use in greenhouses, shadehouses, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations, landscapes, and interiorscapes. This is a contact miticide, so thorough coverage of all plant parts is essential. This miticide is active on all mite life stages, including eggs. Floramite is fast acting and provides up to 28 days of residual activity. The label rate is 4 to 8 fl oz per 100 gal.

TetraSan contains the active ingredient etoxazole and is actually a growth regulator for mites, inhibiting the molting process. TetraSan is labeled for control of the following mites: twospotted spider mite, citrus red mite, European red mite, lewis spider mite, Pacific spider mite, Southern red mite, and spruce spider mite. TetraSan can be used to control mites in greenhouses, lathhouses, shadehouses, and interiorscapes and on outdoor ornamentals. Similar to abamectin (Avid) (described previously), TetraSan is a contact and translaminar miticide providing up to 28 days of residual activity from a single application. The label rate for controlling mites is 8 to 16 oz per 100 gal. The product is active on the egg, larvae, and nymphal stages. It has minimal effect on adult mites. However, adult female mites that are treated do not produce viable eggs.

   

Hexygon

Hexygon, manufactured by Gowan Co., contains the active ingredient hexythiazox and is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, arborvitae spider mite, European red mite, honey locust spider mite, Pacific spider mite, Southern red mite, spruce spider mite, strawberry mite and Willamette mite. Hexygon is a contact and stomach poison miticide, so thorough coverage of all plant parts is essential. The miticide may provide up to 45 days of residual activity. The label rate is 1-2 oz. per 100 gals. Hexygon is active on mite eggs and the larvae stage. In fact, any eggs deposited by adult females that contact treated surfaces are not viable; however, Hexygon has no direct activity on adult mites. Hexygon has the same mode of action as clofentezine (Ovation), so it is important to avoid using these two miticides in succession in a rotation program. The mode of action of Hexygon involves disrupting the formation of the embryo during development or inhibiting larval maturation. However, the specific mode of action and target site of activity are still not well understood.

 

Judo

This insectide/miticide, manufactured by OHP Inc., contains the active ingredient spiromesifen. It is formulated as a 480 soluble concentrate (SC) containing 4 lbs. of active ingredient per gallon. Judo is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, Southern red mite, Lewis mite, tumid mite, maple spider mite, spruce spider mite, honeylocust spider mite, euonymus mite, boxwood spider mite, broad mite, cyclamen mite, false spider mite and eriophyid mites (several species).

This miticide is similar to pyridaben (Sanmite) in terms of target pests, with activity on both spider mites and whiteflies. Judo is active on all life stages — even the eggs — of both spider mites and whiteflies. However, Judo is less effective against the adult stage. The label rate is 2-4 fl.oz. per 100 gals. The miticide has translaminar activity providing up to 30 days of residual activity, which is similar to other miticides including hexythiazox (Hexygon), bifenazate (Floramite) and abamectin (Avid).

Judo has a very unique mode of action compared to the other insecticide/miticides currently available. The active ingredient works as a lipid biosynthesis inhibitor. Lipids are a group of compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen, which includes fatty acids, oils and waxes. Lipid molecules are responsible for a number of functions such as cell structure in membranes and sources of energy. As such, Judo blocks the production of lipids, which disrupts cell membrane structural integrity and reduces energy sources.

 

Ovation

Ovation, manufactured by Scotts Co., contains the active ingredient clofentezine and is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, Pacific spider mite, McDaniel spider mite, European red mite and yellow spider mite. Because Ovation is a contact miticide only, thorough coverage of all plant parts is critical during application. This miticide is active on mite eggs and the immature stages, such as the nymphs and larvae, with no direct activity on adult mites.

Although Ovation is slow acting, it can provide up to 45 days of residual activity. The label rate is 2 fl.oz. per 100 gals. Ovation has the same mode of action as hexythiazox (Hexygon), which means these two miticides should not be used in succession in a rotation program. Ovation has a mode of action that disrupts the formation of the embryo during development or inhibiting larval maturation. However, the specific mode of action and target site of activity are still not well understood.

 

ProMite

ProMite (formally Vendex) is one of the older miticides and contains the active ingredient fenbutatin-oxide. Manufactured by Griffin LLC, this miticide is available in water-soluble packets and is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, clover mite, oak mite, Southern red mite and spruce spider mite. ProMite is a contact miticide only, so it is important to thoroughly spray all plant parts during application. This miticide is slower acting than most miticides, taking 7-10 days to eventually kill mites. However, it provides up to 30 days of residual activity. The label rate is 8-16 oz. per 100 gals. ProMite is a warm-weather miticide providing better control when the ambient air temperature is above 70° F. ProMite has a mode of action involving the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation at the site of dinitrophenol uncoupling, which disrupts the formation or synthesis of ATP. This is a restricted use miticide (48-hour restricted entry interval).

Pylon

Is a miticide that is can be used only in greenhouses. It contains the active ingredient chlorfenapyr. Pylon is labeled for control of various mites, including twospotted spider mite, broad mite, cyclamen mite, citrus bud mite, and rust mite. Pylon is a contact and translaminar miticide. In addition, it works as a stomach poison when ingested. Pylon is only active on the mobile life stages, including larvae, nymphs, and adults. It has no activity on mite eggs. The product can provide up to 28 days of residual activity. The label rate is 2.6 to 5.2 fl oz per 100 gal.

 

Sanmite

The active ingredient in Sanmite, manufactured by Scotts Co., is pyridaben. Sanmite is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, broad mite, European red mite, Southern red mite and tumid mite. Sanmite is a contact insecticide/miticide only, so thorough coverage of all plant parts is important for effective control. It has activity on all mite life stages, including eggs, nymphs, larvae and adults. Sanmite works quickly on the mobile stages and may provide up to 45 days of residual activity.

The label rate is 4 oz. per 100 gals. Sanmite has a similar mode of action as fenpyroximate (Akari) and acequinocyl (Shuttle). All three are METIs; however, the site of action is different from Shuttle. Still, these miticides should not be used in succession in a rotation program. Sanmite has a mode of action that involves inhibition of the mitochondria electron transport system at the NADH-coenzyme Q reductase site of Complex I.

 

Shuttle

Shuttle has the active ingredient acequinocyl. Manufactured by Arysta LifeScience, this miticide is formulated as a 15-percent soluble concentrate (SC). Shuttle is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite and spruce spider mite. The miticide works by contact activity only but is active on all spider mite life stages, including eggs. It kills spider mites quickly and provides up to 28-days of residual activity. The label rate is 6.4 to 12.8 fl.oz. per 100 gals. Shuttle has a mode of action similar to fenpyroximate (Akari) and pyridaben (Sanmite) as all three miticides are METIs. However, whereas both Akari and Sanmite work in blocking electron transfer at Complex I in the mitochondria, Shuttle binds to the Qo center of Complex III in the mitochondria, reducing energy production by preventing synthesis of ATP. Regardless, it is still important to avoid using any one of these three miticides in succession in a rotation program.

 

TetraSan

TetraSan, manufactured by Valent U.S.A. Corp., contains the active ingredient etoxazole, and is actually a growth regulator for mites, inhibiting the molting process. TetraSan is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, citrus red mite, European red mite, Lewis spider mite, Pacific spider mite, Southern red mite and spruce spider mite. This miticide has both contact and translaminar activity providing up to 28 days of control from a single application. The label rate is 8-16 oz. per 100 gals. TetraSan is active on the egg, larvae, and nymphal stages of mites. It generally has minimal activity on adult mites. However, adult female mites that are treated do not produce viable eggs. The mode of action of TetraSan is as a chitin synthesis inhibitor by preventing the formation of chitin, which is an essential component of an insect and mite’s exoskeleton causing the cuticle to become thin and brittle. As a result, mites die while attempting to molt from one life stage to the next.

 

 

Vendex

Is one of the older miticides and contains the active ingredient fenbutatin-oxide. The miticide is labeled for control of twospotted spider mite, clover mite, Southern red mite, and spruce spider mite. Vendex can be used in greenhouses, on outdoor ornamentals, and on established landscape ornamentals and nurseries. This is a contact miticide, so it is important to thoroughly spray all plant parts during application. Vendex is slower acting than most miticides, taking 7 to 10 days to eventually kill mites. However, it provides long-lasting control–about 30 days of residual activity. The label rate is 8 to 16 oz per 100 gal. Vendex is a warm-weather miticide providing better control when the ambient air temperature is above 70 degrees F. This product is a restricted-use pesticide.

Comments

  1. Evette Higgins says:

    Please tell me how to tell what type of spider mite I have. I have a very severe problem. Started a few years ago, but I was unaware of the issue. I tried last year to treat with a host of over the counter pesticide. No such luck.

    • If you look at the pictures shown you should be able to tell. You will need a magnifying glass or microscope to see then really well.

  2. In North America we have the Two Spotted mites and the Southern Red Mites for the most part. If you want to look at your plants, you will need a jewelers glass or other magnifying instrument. You can microscopes that plug into your computer for under $60.00.

  3. My mom had some plants in her house that were infested with spider mites. She was in the hospital for a couple weeks, and the mites evidently got into her carpet. She has had multiple small bites on her ankles and legs.
    Is there a pesticide that is effective and can be safely used indoors (she is 89 years old)?

    • The bites are probably not spider mites. They are too small to be a problem and the do not feed on people. You can use flea foggers that have Pyrethrens in them. If you can do this once a week for 3 weeks you will have them licked, they will die off in a month or so with no plants for food.

  4. Christine says:

    Spipdermites do bite humans, I have been infested to my horror. I have an auto immune disease so they pick on me my dr said . I have bites and leisions onmy arms and face covering them completley. They are in my eys ears nose mouth . It is gross . Im taking the medicine that changes their dna so they cant reproduce but that takes time meanwhile useing scabie cream . This has been going on for months but u cant see them so everyone thought I was crazy. I5 has been a living nightmare.

Speak Your Mind

*